Preparation of Profit and Loss Account

Explanation of Certain items of Profit and Loss Account

1. Salaries

Salaries are paid for the services of employees and are debited to profit and loss ac- count being indirect expense. If any salary has been paid to proprietor or partners, it should be shown separately because it requires special treatment at the time of income tax assessment.

2. Salaries and Wages

When wages account is included with salaries it treated is as indirect expense and is taken into profit and loss account.

3. Rent

Rent of the office shop showroom or godown is an indirect expense and so is debited to profit & loss account. However, rent of factory is debited to trading account. When a part of the building has been sublet the rent received should be shown on the credit side of profit and loss account as a separate item.

4. Rates and Taxes

These are levied by the local authorities to meet public expenditure. It being an indirect expenditure is shown on the debit side of profit and loss account.

5. Interest

Interest on loan, overdraft or overdue debts is payable by the firm. It is an indirect expense; so debited to profit and loss account. Interest on loan advanced by the firm on depositor investments is an income of the firm and so is credited to the profit and loss account.

If business has paid any interest on capital to its proprietor or partners it should also be debited in the profit and loss account but separately because this item needs special treatment at the time of income-tax assessment.

6. Commission

In business sometimes agents are appointed to effect sales, who are paid commission as their remuneration. So this being a selling expenses is shown on the debit side of profit and loss account. Sometimes commission is also paid on purchases of goods, such ‘as expense should be debited in the trading account. Sometimes the firm can also act as an agent to the other business houses and in such cases it receives commission from them. Commission so received is shown on the credit side of profit and loss account.

7. Trade Expenses

They are also termed as ‘sundry expenses’. Trade expenses represent expenses of such a nature for which it is not worthwhile to open separate accounts. Trade expenses are not taken to trading account.

8. Repairs

Repairs to the plant, machinery, building are indirect expenses are treated expense and are debited to profit and loss account..

9. Traveling Expenses

Unless mentioned otherwise, traveling expenses are treated as indirect expenses and are debited to profit and loss account.

10. Horse & stable Expenses

Expenses incurred for the fodder of horses and wages paid for looking after stable are treated as indirect expenses and debited to profit and loss account.

11. Apprentice Premium

This is the amount charged from persons to whom training is imparted by the business. It is an income and is credited to profit and loss account. In case apprentice premium is charged in advance for two or three years, then the amount is distributed over number of years and each year’s profit and loss account is credited with its share of income.

12. Bad debts

It is the amount which could not be recovered by the trader on account of credit sales. It is a business loss, so is debited in the profit and loss account.

13. Life Insurance Premium

If the premium is paid on the life policy of the proprietor of the business; it is treated as his drawings and is shown by way of deduction from the capital account. It should not be taken to profit and loss account.

14. Insurance Premium

If insurance premium account appears in the trial balance, it stands for the insurance of the business. This is taken to profit and loss account. Insurance premium on goods purchased, factory building, factory machines are treated as direct expense and are taken to trading account.

15. Income Tax

In the case of merchant income-tax paid is treated as a personal expense and is shown by way of deduction from capital account. Income-tax in case of companies is treated differently.

16. Discount allowed and Received

Discount is a reward for prompt payment. It is belief to show discount received and discount allowed separately on the credit and debit side of profit and loss account respectively instead of showing the net balance of this account.

17. Depreciation

Depreciation is a loss incurred on account of use of fixed assets in the business. Generally, it is charged from profit and loss account at a fixed percentage. The students should exercise great care as regards the rate of depreciation. If rate is without words ‘per annum’, then the rate will be taken irrespective of the period of accounts. This is very important when the period of accounts is less than one year. On the other hand, if the rate of depreciation is ‘per annum’ the depreciation should be calculated on the assets with due consideration to the period for which the asset has been used in business during the year. In case of additions to assets during the year, it is advisable to ignore depreciation on additions if the date of additions is not given. Same rule shall hold good for the sale of assets during the year.

18. Stock at the end appearing in the trial balance.

It is important to emphasize the rule that balance appearing in the trial balance is taken to one and only one place. It may either be trading account or profit and loss account or balance sheet. Since stock at the end is an asset, it will betaken to balance sheet. On the other hand, so long as there is stock in trade, account for that must be kept open and thus be taken to the assets side of balance sheet.

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7 Benefits of a Press Release for Every Business

For the business of every size and industry, press releases deliver exceptional results, which mean that they can work like a magic wand to grow your online presence and boost exposure. This brings us to the next question: what should you expect from a top-notch press release writing service provider?

It can be a crucial marketing element for a business because of the probabilities for free media coverage. The news release is a key weapon in the fight to make your brand get noticed by a large number of audiences. When you exploit them to the fullest extent you can count on these 7 benefits-

1. All businesses can benefit from press release distribution services. No matter how small or big your company is and no matter what industry you’re in, you can benefit from this distribution. Though you may not have that “Oprah story”, you surely do have stories that can help you get coverage online. Certainly, you won’t get that publicity unless you enlighten your story.

2. It is easy on the pocket. Most of the companies write down the PRs of their own. The only cost comes with hiring press release writing and distribution service is to get the story in the right hands of key media members. But even this is economical, and when compared with other advertising, especially paid advertising; it is almost always the most affordable option.

3. It boosts your company’s visibility and presence online. This is especially vital for small businesses, but even big businesses need to fight for user mindshare. By following a long-term PR distribution strategy, you make customers know who you’re, what you do, and how you can help them.

4. It can help establish you as an industry expert. Why is it essential to be seen as an expert? Firstly, expertise assists you to gain customer’s trust. Once they found you as reliable, they’re more likely to use your product/services. Additionally, being an expert is beneficial for media relations.

5. Use your news to acquire more customers. With today’s online PR, the media is no longer the only audience you are writing for. More than 80 million people read news online daily. Most of the, are your customers. So, you must consider your buyers when writing your PRs. But remember not to convert it into an advertisement.

6. Investors keep up with the latest news too. They show up the advancement and successes made by your company can be influential tools for attracting investors.

7. It can provide worldwide reach. Depending on the service offered and its target audience, it can boost your online reach and exposure worldwide.

How Should You Select a Press Release Distribution Service?

So, after knowing the benefits of effective PR writing, you may probably wonder how you can choose the most suitable and reliable distribution service provider for such type of content. In this case, it is recommended to select the one that is completely compatible with your goals, needs, and budget.

With numerous free and paid alternatives available for you, it is very important to filter your choice based on the exposure/traffic opportunities and SEO benefits offered by them. Also, you might want to go with a service provider with a high level of authority and credibility.

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Recovery for Co Participants Injured in Outdoor Sporting Activities in Michigan

The question I address here is what happens when a co participant in an outdoor sporting activity injuries or kills someone while engaged in that activity? An accident can occur in a vast array of activities such as golfing, dirt bike riding, skiing or hunting.

The lead case concerning recovery for outdoor sporting activities in Michigan was decided in 1999. In that case, the court granted leave to consider the appropriate standard of care for those involved in recreational activities. The court ruled that co participants in recreational activities owe each other a duty not to act recklessly.

Hypothetically, let’s consider the case where someone is injured while skating. The Midwest contains numerous ice rinks open to the public for skating. The question is what is the liability of someone who is inexperienced and knocks down while skating backwards causing serious injury to the innocent victim. The victim in this situation could would allege that the defendant was skating backwards in a “careless, reckless, and negligent manner” at the time of the collision.

The Michigan Courts will have to consider the appropriate standard of care for those involved in the specific recreational activity. In this case it is open public skating. Consequently, under Michigan Law co participants in skating activities owe each other a duty not to act recklessly.So, we are left with a valid argument that an inexperience skater in a crowded public rink should not be skating backwards under any circumstances. Therefore the defendant is acting recklessly. The defendant could easily counter that while inexperienced she is practicing and learning in a reasonable manner. Obviously this creates a question of fact after all the information and fact are developed in discovery.

The Michigan courts supply little guidelines where individuals engage in recreational or sports activities. The case law generally assumes there is an ordinary risk in each activity and that plaintiffs cannot recover for any injury unless it can be shown that the other participant’s actions were either ‘reckless’ or ‘intentional’. In other states where assumption of the risk has been abolished, some courts have held that a participant “consents” to conduct normally associated with the activity. In that case an injured party must look very closely at the expectations of the parties to each activity.

The Michigan Courts adopted a reckless misconduct as the minimum standard of care for co participants in recreational activities. The court found that this standard most accurately reflects the actual expectations of participants in recreational activities. However, in this writers opinion, the only way to apply this standard is to go into the intricacies of each sporting activity. Thus, each sport will have different standards and rules. Additionally there is an issue of the relative experience of each person involve in the activity.

The Michigan courts have stated they believe that participants in recreational activities do not expect to sue or be sued for mere carelessness. Although that is true to an extent, you also don’t expect to go out for some sporting fun and come home disabled or seriously injured.

The Michigan courts further conclude that a recklessness standard somehow encourage vigorous participation in recreational activities, while still providing protection from egregious conduct. Finally the Michigan court concludes this standard lends itself to common-sense application by both judges and juries.

I believe this decision is wrong and somewhat disturbing. I do not agree with the court. Consider the case of an injured hunter. I believe that if people knew the law on hunting in Michigan they may choose not to participate in a multiple group hunting event. A co participant could easily be shot by an inexperienced hunter in their group. The inexperienced hunter could be violating a basic rule of hunting such as swinging on game. There are several basic rules of firearm hunting that could be violated causing serious injury. The question is whether this should be considered negligence or reckless conduct for purposes of civil liability.

Additionally what happens when a hunter is injured by a hunter that is not in the same party of the victim? Is this random hunter considered a co participant even though they are not in the same group of hunters. What is the standard of care of this random hunter?

Thus, when confronted with the question of a serious injury or wrongful death of a co participant hunter, the question is how do you prove that the shooter was reckless in his behavior versus just negligent? In other words, what is the conduct in Michigan and other jurisdictions that is normally acceptable and associated with hunting. Conversely, what is considered reckless and unacceptable conduct while hunting.

In considering the facts of a hunting accident or a wrongful death, what conduct would be considered an accident and what would be considered reckless? If the hunter injures or kills a co participant because he mistakes him for an animal, is his conduct negligent or reckless? What was the shooters position when he fired the shot? What is the shooters level of experience? Should the training and experience of the hunter be a factor in determine the ultimate issue of liability?

The answer to all these questions is that the jury will have to decide for themselves based upon the facts of the hunting accident as presented by both the remaining co participants and the accident reconstruction by the police and retained experts. Certainly an argument could be made that anyone who is shot or killed by another hunter was the victim of reckless conduct.

In a hunting accident, what if the hunter becomes confused or forgets about the location of the victim when he fired the wayward shot. Consequently, the victim can argue it is always the responsibility of every hunter to know the location of his co participants before he or she fires a shot. Certainly there is a forceful argument that this is reckless conduct.

An expert witness in firearms and forensics would be an important witness in proving your case. Every case will have multiple moving parts as well issues related to gun safely and DNR regulations. In other words, did the hunter violate any safety principles established by the State of Michigan Hunter Education Program? Specifically, was there a lack of establishing or coordinating a safe zone of fire in this case? That is, the area in which a hunter can shoot safely. For instance, did the hunter fail to maintain the whereabouts of co participants placing them at risk of injury or death. In my opinion, it is reckless to fire a weapon at stationary or moving target when standing behind another co participant while shooting at game.

The conclusion of the expert in a hunting accident case is critical. The expert will base their conclusion upon years of experience and forensic scientific testing. The expert should have extensive understanding of “terminal ballistics” (the point from which a projectile makes contact with an object).

For instance, what is the path of a bullets flight? Was the shot and view un-obstructed prior to striking the victim? What is the type of ammunition used when it struck the victim? What is the muzzle velocity in terms of traveling feet per second? What was the condition of the bullet when it was retrieved from the victim. Was it a disfigured entry shape while entering the victim or was it an unobstructed shot?

What happens when a shooter is suffering from a sickness? In other words, what is the hunters general physical condition? Should that hunter be precluded from participating in dangerous sport like hunting because of his physical condition?

A jury would have to look at this evidence and determine whether this was a contributing factor to the hunting accident. Did the hunter make a mistake in participating in the trip? Is that participation alone enough to be considered reckless or merely negligent.

Was the at fault hunter taking medication? What are the known effects of the medication? The question is whether the shooter should have been hunting at all that day? If he was on medication that affects his judgment or makes him drowsy then he had no business handling firearms and hunting. The drugs may explain a hunters confusion about the location of the victim at the time he fired the lethal shot. Alternatively, the drugs may alter the hunters perception of his surroundings.

You can argue they failed to establish and coordinate a safe zone of fire. Another rule they violated is never shoot unless you know exactly what your shot is going to strike. Also, before you fire you must be sure that your bullet will not injure anyone or anything beyond his target. Also, it is imperative that you are know the position of your co participants before you shoot.

The expert witness you choose should conduct scientific testing to determine the angle of the shot and the safety factors. A safe direction means a direction in which a bullet cannot possibly strike anyone, taking into account that bullets can penetrate walls and ceilings. The safe direction may be “up” on some occasions or “down” on others, but never at anyone or anything not intended as a target.

Conversely, there could be hunting accidents that result from negligence of the injured party and not reckless conduct. This could result from the co participants jointly agreeing to hunt in dangerous proximity to each other. Additionally the hunters could agree to stay out after dark or hunt in a rugged and rocky area. A gun could be innocently misfired as a result of a defect.

The bottom line is that the court may very well apply the ordinary negligence standard based on the facts of your case. Here is how I would make my argument in the case of a hunter injured by a co participant. I would explain to the court it cannot reasonably be argued that part of the inherent risk of hunting is that your co participant will shoot you, right. Hunting accidents can occur if someone drops a gun or accidentally pulls the trigger, but you do not take the inherent risk that a co participant intentionally stands behind you and fires at game in your direction. If that was the case, no reasonable person would ever go hunting.

It is easy to argue that a hunter violated numerous basic rules of hunting that leads to the conclusion his conduct was reckless when he or she shoots a co participant. It may be much more difficult to argue a different sporting activity such as baseball requires a negligence standard. Thus, each sport should be viewed in the context and goals of that specific activity.

My review of most factors in a hunting accident case, but not all cases, lead me to believe that the negligence standard should be applied instead of recklessness.

In a recent case concerning a golf cart injury the Michigan opened the door to consider factors other than applying just a strict recklessness standard. The Michigan courts ruled the standard of care for the operation of a golf cart is not reckless misconduct but it is ordinary negligence.This makes sense because a co participant in a golf match does not expect to get run over by a golf cart. Arguably, golf carts are not part of the game. This is despite the fact that golf carts are certainly part of the operation of the course and players.

Consider the case where a co participant takes a shot to get his ball on the green, then inadvertently drives his golf cart in the direction of a co participant thinking that they are heading in the other direction. The golf cart driver then strikes and injures his co participant. the driver of the cart will claim his action is only a reasonable mistake or accident. Certainly the driver looked to see if there was anyone in front of the cart and he saw no one.

The golf cart accident resulting in injuries presents an issue of first impression in Michigan. Obviously, the parties were, without dispute, co participants in a recreational activity. Thus, the Michigan courts should find co participants in recreational activities owe each other a duty not to act recklessly.

So under the previous rulings the golf cart accident resulted in co participant conduct that causes injury during a recreational activity must meet the reckless misconduct standard.

Likewise, even though numerous golf-related cases in Michigan and other jurisdictions have applied the reckless misconduct standard to a participant who was injured by a golf ball or a club, it appears the court is now softening it position. The Michigan court is now saying that a driver of an injury-causing golf cart during a game of golf can be held to any standard other than ordinary negligence.

The logic is that the rules of the game of golf, and secondary sources, allows the court to conclude that golf-cart injuries are not a risk inherent in the game of golf. Consequently, they should not be held to a reckless misconduct standard, instead of an ordinary negligence standard, applies in this case.

Additionally, the rationale for this position seems to indicate that a reckless misconduct standard shall be applied in all cases that seem to involve conduct arising from a recreational activity. However, the court is not supplying the standard broadly as applying to all ‘recreational activities.’ However, the precise scope of this rule is best established by allowing it to emerge on a case-by-case basis, so that we might carefully consider the application of the recklessness standard in various factual contexts.”

The courts must look at the definition of Inherent risk which is defined similarly by both legal and lay dictionaries:

1. A risk that is necessarily entailed in a given activity and involves dealing with a situation that carries a probability of loss unless action is taken to control or correct it. 2. A fairly common risk that people normally bear whenever they decide to engage in a certain activity.

A risk is inherent in an activity if the ordinary participant would reasonably consent to the risk, and the risk cannot be tailored to satisfy the idiosyncratic needs of any particular participant like the plaintiff.

There seems to be an opening to argue that negligence standard may apply in the case of a hunting accident. Although hunters have guns I do not believe for one minute that a co participant assumes there is a natural risk he will be shot by the other hunter. However, I still am of the opinion that when one hunter shoots a co participant that hunter acted recklessly.

Based on the rationale behind the Michigan courts recent findings, there is a possibility that the jury may be instructed on the ordinary care standard under the circumstances of certain cases. That is to say the standard of care of a reasonable hunter under the circumstances or a skater or skier in Michigan.

So, the question is how to present the argument that the standard of care in your outdoor co participant sporting activity should be negligence instead of recklessness to the court?

Whether it is the reckless standard or negligence standard it is a question of fact for the jury.The burden of proof of either standard is by a preponderance of the evidence in either case. A jury will likely find a hunter that shoots a co participant reckless rather than negligent.

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The Seven Evils of Fast Food – And Why I Still Eat It!

There’s nothing wrong with food being fast. To walk into an eatery, order a meal and get it in five minutes is great. But there’s a trade-off when commercial pressures come into the story.

Here are the seven evils of fast food. Avoid them if you can — it IS possible if you buy with care.

 1. Substandard Ingredients

No, not everywhere, nor all food in a particular outlet. But large chains and the wholesale suppliers to smaller places have a grand opportunity to offload low-quality ingredients processed to make them acceptable, especially in highly-flavored food (see #2 and #3 below). 

The worst ‘offenses’ involve mechanically reclaimed meat and using emulsifiers and polyphosphates to retain processing water in meat. How can you tell? When you can see a nutrition table, look for the protein to fat ratio. Lean meat will be around 3:1 protein, depending a little on the animal and breed. Highly-processes ground meat products such as sausage and kebab meat can vary from 1:1 to 3:1 fat, with a third of the weight added water. Without printed evidence, you’ll have to educate your palate!

So be aware, and look for better quality food; most Indian places use good, fresh ingredients, for example, whereas a lot of Chinese outlets buy in highly-processed partly-prepared ingredients to go with the fresh stuff. That’s not a hard-and-fast rule; use common sense to choose your store. Burger joints vary from fastidiously pure food to utter garbage in both meat and sauces — and Macdonald’s and Burger King are better than most for purity. But their desserts, shakes and soft drinks are another matter — read on!

 2. Fat and Sugar For That Blobby Feeling

These are the staples of most quick preparation foods. This is particularly because frying is speedy and sugar is the core of desserts and drinks. At least the oils used today are healthier than the old saturated animal fats.  You’ll already be aware that a high fat, high sugar diet is unhealthy. An occasional fast food meal should be no problem nutritionally — your body is great at dealing with infrequent overload. But do you fool yourself that your take-away every lunch and every night is ‘occasional’?

Both fat and sugar are addictive (see #7) and combine to make the best way to pick up atherosclerosis, arthritis, diabetes, heart attacks and cancer — if that’s your choice of future.

 3. Salt Can Lead To Hypertension

To most punters, tasty equals salty. But salty equals hypertension equals high blood pressure equals collapsed arteries and heart failure. Eating less salt is impossible if you major on fast food, because you don’t control salt addition and if a fast food joint left it out, most of its customers wouldn’t come back.

The result is that a fast food diet is almost always a high-salt diet.

 4. Low Fiber Equals Gut Problems

By customer demand, most fries are skinless and bread, pasta and rice are white.  The fiber is stripped away to give you what was once a luxury food, but now is the cheap, health-free option. Fast foods rarely include much fruit or vegetables by weight — they tend to be garnishes. When most of the other calories come from refined oils and sugar, fast food meals as a whole are very low in fiber. 

This is the cause of sluggish digestion, dyspepsia and poor food absorption and poisoning from inefficient waste elimination. It’s also reckoned to seriously increase some cancer risks (especially that all too common colon cancer).

If you eat a lot of fast food and other low-fiber stuff, you’ll be liable to the usual constipation and dyspepsia. If it’s an occasional treat and you usually eat plenty of vegetables and other fiber-rich food, no problem.

 5. Additives Can Mess Up Your Body

Many food additives are fine, but that’s not always the case with fast foods. Preservatives are often mild poisons, artificial flavorings can mess up your digestion’s signaling system and many commercial colours promote allergies in a large minority while they disguise bad ingredients. Watch out for places that use all of these to boost bad food.

You’ll probably know already if you are particularly sensitive to any of the more dire additives, like azo dyes or benzoates, and you’ll have the problem of finding out whether the fast food you’re looking at is free of your particular horror. Tough! The friers and counter staff usually haven’t a clue what’s in their food. If it’s a large chain, you just might find that they have a recipe book for inspection.

 6. Nutrient-Poor — You get Sick

This evil is maybe the worst problem with fast food, as well as other ready meals from supermarkets and those cheaper restaurants that buy in chilled and frozen meals ready to microwave, grill and and fry for you. 

Many ingredients, from oils and flour to sauces and pickles, are given a long shelf life for convenience. This involves removing the part of the food that spoils quickly and adding artificial preservatives. Problem is, the preservatives are mostly bad for you and the stuff removed is the fiber, plant sterols, vitamins and other natural ingredients that you need to eat to stay healthy.

That’s why most people today are sick in body and listless, prone to illnesses and body breakdown like diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Being like this is, for most people, a choice, not inevitable. If you choose this kind of food as your staple diet, you choose the consequences, too.

 7. Addictive — You can’t Stop The Gorging

A key reason so many people major on fast food is its addictiveness — I’ve given the reasons for that above. It’s similar to that for nicotine and can have similar withdrawal symptoms. The usual result is that you eat far more food than you can burn up for energy, and it gets stored as fat.  We’re a society of fatties, as you can’t avoid knowing.  Type II diabetes, heart problems, rheumatic diseases like arthritis, bodily breakdown from the load you have to permanently carry and cancers are the usual consequence — and the age that the trouble begins is steadily coming down.

Be aware, and you can reduce your dependency on this kind of food, wherever you buy it.

So In Summary…

Overall, then, fast food can be a seriously quick way to Bad Health, with an unpleasant long-term future for you if you make this kind of food a way of life. But if you choose your outlet and meal carefully, fast food can be a delight and at least fairly healthy. Even the most fastidious foodie can indulge once in a while!

I ought to finish, though, by reminding you that Fast Food isn’t the only kind that has these Seven Evils! Most people in the West have sick bodies because their whole diet is based on prepacked, processed food with (as we say) all the goodness taken out. Government agencies all through Europe, North America and Oceania have been flagging up these problems for decades, yet public health steadily gets worse. You can’t have missed those Public Health campaigns, nor the media fuss over every new medical report all governments produce on ‘The State Of The Nation’s Health’.

Yet if you’re a ‘normal’ member of Western Society, you’ll have spent little of your attention on these ‘scare campaigns’, and a lot more on believing the thousands of adverts promising a wonderful lifestyle if only you’ll eat their heavily-advertised junk food. It amounts to, “Indulge yourself, and you’ll be happy,” with the suggestion that you can eat treats many times a day without any consequences to your health.

Our ancestors knew better. They called this kind of eating ‘gluttony’, and told their kids exactly what the consequences would be. And they were right.

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Why Choose AngularJs Development Services to Build Superior Applications

HTML is one of the initial technologies. It is still in vogue and performs declaration of static documents in the finest way. But when it comes to dynamic websites, it fails to deliver. Here, AngularJS comes into the picture. AngularJS is a framework powered by JavaScript and maintained by Google. This open source platform extends your HTML attributes and binds the data to HTML along with expressions.

Since its launch, it has continued to outperform dynamic page loading by offering a great user experience. Not just that. It also extends the vocabulary of HTML of your application. This drives an engaging user interface along with an impressive website streaming.

AngularJs Web Development offers dynamic view of web pages. It integrates with Model View Whatever (MVW) structure along with components. When it comes to creating data driven apps and web solutions, AngularJS is one of the most preferred frameworks.

Why AngularJS?

AngularJS is designed and developed on the understanding of HTML’s limits and it addresses its confinity. HTML is designed to run static pages, not for dynamic view. Frameworks other that Angular abstracts either HTML, CSS and JavaScript or manipulate the DOM. But when you opt AngularJs Web Application Development, it syncs in the MVW components to help your app deliver better performance.

How AngularJs is Better Than Others?

AngularJs gives you tools and provides you with an architecture that is a perfect fit for your application development. It offers extensibility that works well with other libraries. AngularJs Development Services allow your developers to customize every feature and create a unique application for you. The accelerated features help your app to process smoothly and add all the features that you probably need.

The basic theory of application development revolves around combing multiple modules together. All these modules have separate logic and different natures. Now, to develop an app, these diversified logics are put together and connected with each other for same functionality. AngularJs Web Application Development works on MVC structure that smoothens this connection of separate module and delivers a superior performance.

Now, let’s look at some of the features that make AngularJs perfectly fit for crafting superior applications.

Features of AngularJs

High End Usability

AngularJs Web Development does not manipulate DOM from the basic application logic. It makes this platform proficiently easy to use. This feature works as a remedy for single page applications as their performance struggles when it comes to dynamic view of their single pages. Automatic data building, directives, filter and distinctives and other distinctive features save developers to create complex codes. These features also help your application to optimize the code.

Self-Sufficient POJO Model

AngularJS uses Plain Old JavaScript Objects to extend the functionality of your application. This model makes you application self-sufficient. With this model, your application works spontaneously in a well-planned mechanism with logics to deliver an attentive user interface. A developer just has to place objects and array with their specific properties in a loop to drive your app with in an efficient manner. It creates spontaneous codes with clarity and enables you to develop your web app that are user-friendly and interactive.

Competent MVC Framework

AngularJS comes with a frictionless MVC (Model View Control) structure, which is highly dynamic in nature. AngularJs Development Services automatically combine different elements of MVC to develop a synergistic mechanism for your application. This helps developers to build web applications without writing extra codes. It allows them to combine different elements of MVC separately and automatically.

Dynamic Architecture

A high-end user interface and superior dynamic view comes with a dynamic architecture. AngularJS is enriched with structure. It also works on other modes like Model-View-View Modes and Model-View-Controller. It boosts your application to modify and operate the DOM to execute the data and application behavior. So, when it comes to delivering a cognitive interface to your users, AngularJs Web Application Development helps the best.

AngularJS works as a single platform to develop application for both; mobile and desktops. With its reusable codes and dynamic architecture, it builds high performing applications with a superior speed. It gives you more control over scalability and satisfies your heavy data needs.

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Enhance Competitiveness in Team Building Activities

In this globalized world, competitiveness is the key behind the success of any organization. Today’s highly dynamic global market demands competitiveness not only in products, but also in services and most importantly in teams as well. Most of the companies stress on team cohesiveness and interaction and a competitive spirit is kept on the sidelines. However, it can be the single most differentiating factor behind the effectiveness of your team and the rest of the corporate domain. Motivation, discipline and adequate support are the key ingredients for team competitiveness. Team building experiences and activities are a good platform for increasing that spirit.

Four ways to enhance competitiveness in team building activities:

1. Set the tone

Set the tone beforehand while conducting a team building activity. While the majority of the participants view activities as all fun and pleasure, make them understand that competitiveness is also a major component in the team building exercise. Setting up a definition which is specific will help the participants align more with the company’s mission, vision and values.

2. Initiate the initiative

Exhort the participating team to take the initiative in every team building exercise. You can even reward teams who take the first initiative; People who have killer spirit usually take the initiative in any projects, work or tasks. Once participating teams are induced to take the initiative, they will automatically get the courage to take the initiative. There are many team building activities practiced by reputed institutions that design activities which foster taking initiatives.

3. Set expectations

To inculcate the spirit of competitiveness, it is preferable to set clear cut expectations. Setting up crystal clear prospects will allow the teams to narrow down their focus and concentration. This will improve your team’s productivity and competitiveness. Setting expectations is also one of the basic fundamentals of effective teams. This will also enhance the consistency of purpose and encourage efficient utilization of vital resources like people, time and money.

4. Teach to handle conflicts

Excessive competitiveness can give rise to increased conflicts. It is up to you to teach the participants the best ways to manage conflicts, both internal and external. This is important as in the spirit of competitiveness. You can teach your team to stay cordial and manage criticisms through the help of team building activities. Put them in a situation that challenges their team spirit. It is best to arrange an off-site team building program and give the employees an opportunity to interact and bond. Trekking could be a nice team building program in Lonavla. In the backdrop of scenic locations, let the employees come together and face a challenge as a team.

The above four ways will enhance the competitive nature of your employees and help your company grow like never before.

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Online Business Degrees

Have you have made the decision to get an online business degree but do not quite know what business area to specialize in? If you are looking for flexibility, it is hard to think of another field as vast as business. Online business degree programs tend to incorporate classes from all specialties of business, giving you the knowledge to tackle any business project. You may choose a general online business degree such as an online business administration degree or you may specialize by pursuing a specialty such as an online accounting degree. To help you decide, here is what you can expect to learn in the many online business degree programs that are offered.   

Online Accounting Degree

Accountants are essential to all organizations, as accountants log income and assets. To remain competitive today’s economy, organizations are actively seeking job candidates who are thoroughly knowledgeable of accounting theories and practices. Upper level positions in accounting are always available for those with the essential understanding of generally accepted accounting principles practiced in today’s accounting profession. An online accounting degree will provide you with the knowledge of financial, managerial and tax accounting practices. Besides organizing and preparing a company’s financial statements, accountants are may also get involved in projects such as reviewing new accounting technology and evaluate financials for mergers and acquisitions.


Online Business Management Degree

For ultimate flexibility it’s difficult to think of a degree as valuable as an online business management degree. Organizations are actively seeking job candidates who are well-rounded in their knowledge of business practices and management methodologies. For those with the understanding of the skills to effectively direct the required imperatives that today’s marketplace demands, upper level positions in management are always available. An online business management degree will teach you critical communication and problem-solving skills, along with practical knowledge about how businesses operate and function successfully.


Online Business Administration Degree

Can’t decide what business specialty to pursue? If so, then an online business administration degree is the way to go. With a degree in Business Administration, you will learn all of the fundamentals required in business & management including communication, critical thinking, strategizing and problem solving. An online business management degree is your ticket to a wide variety of specialties, from office management and accounting to financial administration and human resources.


Online Communications Degree

With an online communications degree, you will become a vital part of any company seeking to stay on top of the fast-changing communications curve. After obtaining a an online communications degree, you will have a thorough knowledge of the different methods of communication including print, television, radio and the web. You will also learn the best practices to apply whether the you are trying to get a message across to one person, a community, or the entire world.


Online Finance Degree

The finance of any organization must be properly managed to make sure that the company is profitable and an online finance degree would make you invaluable to any organization as you help them to stay above their profit margins. With an online finance degree, you’ll learn the principles of accounting and finance, asset and debt management and financial analysis. After obtaining your online finance degree, you will know how to plan, evaluate and manage a company’s financial position and make recommendations to improve a company’s standing.


Online Human Resources Degree

As companies hire new recruits, companies turn to their human resources team to assist them in the company’s growth.  Your online human resources degree can make sure that you have a thorough understanding of human resources practices to help any organization grow. There is more to human resources than just interviewing and hiring. Earning an online human resources degree will not only provide you with the skills to interview and recruit new staff for a company, but you will also learn about employment law, labor policies, and proper hiring and training procedures.


Online International Business Degree

When companies have reached a maximum in their U.S. market share, companies often look to grow by gaining market share abroad. With an online international business degree in, you will be much sought after since you have the knowledge to take any company to an international level. An online international business degree will combine basic principles of business theory and management with an international focus. With the knowledge you gain, you will learn about the factors that affect international business activity and how to face roadblocks that international companies run into.


Online Management Information Systems Degree

Information is the lifeblood of every company and companies rely on MIS personnel to make sure that information is handy and can be shared in the fastest way possible. With an online degree in Management Information Systems, you will have a great understanding of both information and technology and how to combine the two together. Earning an online management information systems degree will teach you how to think like a businessperson and a programmer, enhancing your understanding of technology within the business world. This will allow you to deliver information technology solutions to any organization.


Online Marketing Degree 

The deeper we move into our fast-paced information age, the more important it is for corporations to invest in people with the most current, cutting-edge, marketing knowledge and expertise. An online marketing degree will provide you with this expertise. With an online marketing degree you will learn necessary skills related to marketing strategies and planning, price setting and product development, how to identify key customer needs and trends, how to promote products and services internationally, different communication avenues available in the digital age, and creative approaches that will arm you with the latest in vital marketing information.


Online Masters of Business Administration – MBA

An online MBA – Masters in Business Administration will give you the credibility you need to succeed in a competitive business environment. Earning an online MBA will broaden your chances of success as you will learn how to think like a business owner. An online MBA will also train you in critical thinking and enhance your understanding of the business and financial world.


Online Business Degree Programs

As you can see, an online business degree will prepare you for any career in the business world. Whether you want to join a corporation, already work for one, or want to start your company, an online business degree will embark you on your journey to success.

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Don’t Make These Life Insurance Mistakes

Buying life insurance is not a task to be taken lightly. Your life insurance policy is the financial protection that your family needs to survive your death and the loss of your income. To help you get it right first time we reviewed 5 of the most common mistakes people make when buying a life insurance policy.

1. Not buying enough cover

So how much cover do you need? When you invest in life cover it is critical that you carefully work out how much cover your family will need in the event of your death. This is no easy task and one best left to the professionals. Your life insurance company or broker will be able to walk you through what is known as a needs analysis, a method of calculating your benefit amount based on your assets and liabilities. If you are looking for a rough figure you can also use an online life insurance calculator.

2. Not insuring the life of a stay-at-home parent

A stay-at-home mom or dad might not earn any money but they do a lot for the family every day. Piles of laundry, endless meals and school lunches, driving here and there… How would the surviving spouse or partner pay for these services in the event of the death of the stay-home mom or dad? Suddenly a life insurance policy makes a lot of sense, doesn’t it?

3. Not being honest with your provider

Be scrupulously honest when answering all questions put to you by your online life insurance company. If they found out that you have withheld any information your family’s claim might be reduced or rejected.

4. Not reading your policy documents

We are all guilty of this. Your policy documents arrive, you put them aside thinking ‘I must read those’ and somehow it just never happens. It really is essential that you read your policy documents carefully and that you ask your broker or provider if you have any questions. You need to take special note of policy exclusions (the circumstances under which your life is not covered) and premium increases.

5. Not reviewing your benefit amount

Life does not stand still, does it? Just as your life changes remember that your benefit amount needs to increase as well. The birth or adoption of a child, marriage, a salary increase and an increased debt load all mean that it is time to review your life insurance amount!

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Advantages Of Reading a Business Magazine

Like any other entrepreneur, you are also quite ambitious about your work and want to increase the turnover of your corporation. Therefore, you must be looking for the some important tips to improve the condition of your organization. To give a boost to your work and to make your flourish it, you will not only have to collect information about your own profession, but have to acquire information about the other businesses that are directly or indirectly related to your venture. You can check out the news to know the present condition of the enterprise sectors. However, for a detailed analysis, you should check out a renowned corporate magazine. There are several advantages of reading such magazines.

By reading a business magazine, you will be able to get a detailed analysis of trends and cycles various businesses follow. In such magazines, you can find experts’ opinions and tips regarding some intricate issues of a particular type of profession. As you will get the tips and suggestions on intricate issues related to the enterprise you are dealing in, it will be easier for you to improvise your works condition, which in turn will increase the profit level of your enterprise.

Expert consultation and advices are never available for free. You will have to pay a fee for each consultation and this might incur a huge cost at the end of the year. However, if you check the corporate magazines to get the advice of the experts, you will be able to get the advice of the experts without paying the fees. You just need to pay the price of these magazines. To reduce your expenses on the account of corporate magazines and to get the issue of your favourite magazine on time, you can opt for a subscription. Such publications offer different deals on the subscriptions of corporate magazines. Therefore, you will be able to get the best value of your money.

In the newspapers, you can find detailed report of the conditions of different sectors of the economy. But, all reports might not be related to your profession and you might not be able to get the best help from these reports. However, if you opt for corporate magazines, you can purchase the magazine that focus on the aspects of the work you do. By opting for such a magazine, it will be easier for you to get the advices that are related only to your field and thus you will be able to use the tips for the improvement of your business.

Such magazines are of great importance as they give a detailed report and analysis of the economic sector. Reading the corporate magazines regularly will help you understand the market condition and you will be able to conduct the business activities in a guarded manner. The economic recession has affected almost all the economic sectors of the world. Now, each and every corporate owner, whether small or large, is making his deals with carefully as they do not want to incur any loss. If you always want to make profits from your corporate, you can read the business magazines.

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How Outdoor Recreation Affects You

After engaging in outdoor activities, you may notice that you felt better. Health experts emphasized that time spent for outdoor recreation can actually lead to a wide range of benefits. These will include strengthened family ties and reduced obesity rates. Regardless of whether you just want a stroll along a nature trail or perhaps a strenuous hike up a steep mountain path, bear in mind that outdoor recreation will provide the setting for mental and physical growth.

Benefits Of Engaging In Outdoor Activities

Physical – You will enjoy plenty of physical health benefits if you regularly engage in outdoor activities. These will include a reduced arthritis pain, low blood pressure, weight loss, and lowered risks for various illnesses like osteoporosis, certain cancers, and diabetes. If you get 75 minutes of vigorous exercise like hiking or 150 minutes of moderate exercise like brisk walking and biking every week, risk of chronic disease will be reduced and a healthy weight can be maintained.

Intellectual – Engaging in recreational activities can increase confidence levels, improve creativity and self-esteem. Nature can actually help calm and rejuvenate the mind. Also, it can increase positive effect and enhance outlook. On the contrary, those that are artificially made can cause feelings of irritability, impulsivity, exhaustion, and inattentiveness. Spending time outdoors can also help you focus. Consider having a walk through natural settings now.

Social – Outdoor recreation can likewise offer a chance for you to socialize, which is a very crucial benefit. Birdwatching, for instance, is an activity that incorporates a lot of things to do. These include interpreting auditory and visual input, chatting with the other birdwatchers, and walking. It is also through going outdoors that you can meet new friends or people with similar interests as yours.

Emotional – It is true that the outdoor settings and physical activities can help reduce depression, stress and anxiety. If you spend some of your time exercising in the park, you can definitely have an increase in positive moods, along with a reduction in your cortisol levels. Be aware that cortisol is a hormone released by the body if it feels stressed out. Moreover, you get to have an increased access to green spaces for various activities like walking and other activities that can decrease your stress levels.

Engaging in different outdoor activities like sports will not only be fun. It can also help you improve your overall health and well-being. So if you have time, go outside and take a walk or perhaps be a part of a sports team.

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